Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)


Karyotype: 2n=2x=14, artificial autotetraploid 2n=4x=28

Thomas HM. (1981). The Giemsa C-band karyotypes of six Lolium species. Heredity 46(2): 263-267. link

Malik CP, Thomas PT. (1966). Karyotypic studies in some Lolium and Festuca species. Caryologia 19: 167-196. link

Genome size (1C, Mb): 2567

Kopecky D, Havrankova M, Loureiro J et al. (2010). Physical distribution of homoeologous recombination in individual chromosomes of Festuca pratensis in Lolium multiflorum. Cytogenetic and Genome Research 129: 162-172. link


Genetic maps:

Guan X, Hirata M, Ding C et al. (2014). Genetic linkage map of Lolium multiflorum Lam. constructed from a BC1 population derived from an interspecific hybridization, L. multiflorum × Lolium temulentum L. × L. temulentum. Grassland Science 60: 142-149. link

Bartos J, Sandve SR, Koelliker R et al. (2011). Genetic mapping of DArT markers in the Festuca-Lolium complex and their use in freezing tolerance association analysis. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 122: 1133-1147. link


Whole genome sequencing:

Knorst V, Yates S, Byrne S et al. (2019). First assembly of the gene-space of Lolium multiflorum and comparison to other Poaceae genomes. Grassland Science 65: 125-134. link

cpDNA sequencing: 135,175 bp

Hand ML, Spangenberg GC, Forster JW, and Cogan NOI. (2013). Plastome sequence determination and comparative analysis for members of the Lolium-Festuca grass species complex. G3 3(4): 607-616. link

Transcriptome sequencing:

Cechin J, Piasecki C, Benemann DP et al. (2020). Transcriptome analysis identifies candidate target genes involved in glyphosate-resistance mechanism in Lolium multiflorum. Plants 9:685. link

Hu Z, Zhang Y, He Y et al. (2020). Full-length transcriptome assembly of Italian ryegrass root integrated with RNA-seq to identify genes in response to plant cadmium stress. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21:1067. link

Stoces S, Ruttink T, Bartos J et al. (2016). Orthology guided transcriptome assembly of Italian ryegrass and Meadow fescue for single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery. Plant Genome 9: 3. link

Czaban A, Sharma S, Byrne S et al. (2015). Comparative transcriptome analysis within the Lolium/Festuca species complex reveals high sequence conservation. BMC Genomics 16: UNSP 249. link