White clover (Trifolium repens L.)


Karyotype: allopolyploid 2n=4x=32

Atwood SS, Hill HD. (1940). The regularity of meiosis in microsporocytes of Trifolium repens. American Journal of Botany 27: 730-735. link

Genome size (1C, Mb): 1037 (2n=4x=32)

Pustahija F, Brown SC, Bogunic F, Bašic N, Muratovic E, Ollier S, Hidalgo O, Bourge M, Stevanovic V, Sijak-Yakovev S. (2013). Small genomes dominate in plants growing on serpentine soils in West Balkans, an exhaustive study of 8 habitats covering 308 taxa. Plant and Soil 373: 427-453. link


Genetic maps:

Griffiths AG, Barrett BA, Simon D et al. (2013). An integrated genetic linkage map for white clover (Trifolium repens L.) with alignment to Medicago. BMC Genomics 14: 388. link

Zhang Y, Sledge MK, Bouton JH. (2007). Genome mapping of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and comparative analysis within the Trifolieae using cross-species SSR markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 114: 1367-1378. link


Whole genome sequencing:

Griffiths AG, Moraga R, Tausen M et al. (2019). Breaking Free: The genomics of allopolyploidy-facilitated niche expansion in white clover. The Plant Cell 31: 1466-1487. link

cpDNA sequencing: 132,120 bp

Sveinsson S, Cronk Q. (2014). Evolutionary origin of highly repetitive plastid genomes within the clover genus (Trifolium). BMC Evolutionary Biology 14: 228. link

Transcriptome sequencing:

Griffiths AG, Moraga R, Tausen M et al. (2019). Breaking Free: The genomics of allopolyploidy-facilitated niche expansion in white clover. The Plant Cell 31: 1466-1487. link

Zhang H, Tian H, Chen M et al. (2018). Transcriptome analysis reveals potential genes involved in flower pigmentation in a red-flowered mutant of white clover (Trifolium repens L.). Genomics 110: 191-200. link