Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

Karyotype: 2n=2x=14, artificial autotetraploid 2n=4x=28

Thomas HM. (1981). The Giemsa C-band karyotypes of six Lolium species. Heredity 46(2): 263-267. link

Malik CP, Thomas PT. (1966). Karyotypic studies in some Lolium and Festuca species. Caryologia 19: 167-196. link

Genome size (1C, Mb): 2623

Kopecky D, Havrankova M, Loureiro J et al. (2010). Physical distribution of homoeologous recombination in individual chromosomes of Festuca pratensis in Lolium multiflorum. Cytogenetic and Genome Research 129: 162-172. link

Genetic maps:

Velmurugan J, Mollison E, Barth S et al. (2016). An ultra-high density genetic linkage map of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) using genotyping by sequencing (GBS) based on a reference shotgun genome assembly. Annals of Botany 118:71-87. link

King J, Thomas A, James C et al. (2013). A DArT marker genetic map of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) integrated with detailed comparative mapping information; comparison with existing DArT marker genetic maps of Lolium perenne, L. multiflorum and Festuca pratensis. BMC Genomics 14: 437. link

Tomaszewski C, Byrne S, Foito A et al. (2012). Genetic linkage mapping in an F2 perennial ryegrass population using DArT markers. Plant Breeding 131: 345-349. link

Jones ES, Dupal MP, Kölliker R et al. (2000). Development and charactersation of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 102: 405-415. link

Physical maps:

Harper J, De Vega J, Swain S et al. (2019). Integrating a newly developed BAC-based physical mapping resource for Lolium perenne with a genome-wide association study across a L. perenne european ecotype collection identifies genomic contexts associated with agriculturally important traits. Annals of Botany 123: 977-992. link


Whole genome sequencing:

Byrne S, Nagy I, Pfeifer M et al. (2015). A synteny-based draft genome sequence of the forage grass Lolium perenne. Plant Journal 84: 816-826. link

mtDNA sequencing: 678,580 bp

Islam MS, Studer B, Byrne SL et al. (2013). The genome and transcriptome of Perennial ryegrass mitochondria. BMC Genomics 14: 202. link

cpDNA sequencing: 135 282 bp

Diekmann K, Hodkinson TR, Wolfe KH et al. (2009). Complete chloroplast genome sequence of a major allogamous forage species, Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). DNA research 16(3): 165-176. link

Transcriptome sequencing:

Xie L, Teng K, Tan P et al. (2020). PacBio single-molecule long-read sequencing shed new light on the transcripts and splice isoforms of the perennial ryegrass. Molecular Genetics and Genomics 295: 475-489. link

Fradera-Sola A, Thomas A, Gasior D et al. (2019). Differential gene expression and gene ontologies associated with increasing water-stress in leaf and root transcriptomes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). PloS ONE 14: e0220518. link

Xu B, Yu G, Li H et al. (2019). Knockdown of STAYGREEN in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) leads to transcriptomic alterations related to suppressed leaf senescence and improved forage quality. Plant and Cell Physiology 60: 202-212. link

Shinozuka H, Cogan N, Spangenberg G et al. (2017). Reference transcriptome assembly and annotation for perennial ryegrass. Genome 60: 1086-1088. link

Farrell J, Byrne S, Paina C et al. (2014). De novo assembly of the Perennial ryegrass transcriptome using an RNA-seq strategy. PloS ONE 9: e103567. link

Ruttink T, Sterck L, Rohde A et al. (2013). Orthology guided assembly in highly heterozygous crops: creating a reference transcriptome to uncover genetic diversity in Lolium perenne. Plant Biotechnology Journal 11: 605-617. link

Studer B, Byrne S, Nielsen R et al. (2012). A transcriptome map of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). BMC Genomics 13: 140. link


Arojju SK, Barth S, Milbourne D et al. (2016). Markers associated with heading and aftermath heading in perennial ryegrass full-sib families. BMC Plant Biology 16:160. link

Fè D, Cericola F, Byrne S et al. (2015). Genomic dissection and prediction of heading date in perennial ryegrass. BMC Genomics 16:921. link

Brazauskas G, Lenk I, Pedersen MG et al. (2011). Genetic variation, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium in European elite germplasm of perennial ryegrass. Plant Science 181 (4): 412-420. link